Devry SCI 214 Full Course Latest

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Devry SCI 214 Full Course Latest

Devry SCI 214 Full Course [ all discussion, quizes 1,2,3,5,6,7 ilabs 1,2,3,5,7

 

Devry SCI 214 Week 1 Discussions Latest

Scientific Law, Hypothesis, and Theory (graded)

What is a scientific investigation and what are the steps generally used to evaluate the results? Compare and contrast a scientific law, a hypothesis, and a theory, providing two examples of each. What types of models are used in scientific research?

Designing an Experiment (graded)

What do researchers mean when they say that they have designed a controlled experiment? What is an experimental variable? How do scientists test the data to make sure that what they are seeing isn’t just a random collection of measurements? Can you find an example of a controlled experiment using the Internet or a research journal? Perhaps you would like to describe how you might design an experiment to study something that you find interesting.

Devry SCI 214 Week 2 Discussions Latest

Motion and Energy (graded)

Compare and contrast Newton’s first and second laws of motion. Suppose that you are driving your car down the road and you have to slam on the brakes to avoid hitting your neighbor’s dog. How would Newton’s Laws of Motion play on the motion of the car and the movement of your body while you are accelerating out of the driveway, driving down the road, and coming to a stop?

Kinetic and Potential Energy (graded)

Compare and contrast kinetic and potential energy. Does a person standing motionless in the aisle of a moving bus have kinetic energy? Explain.

This section lists options that can be used to view responses.

Devry SCI 214 Week 3 Discussions Latest

Chemical Reactions (graded)

How has our understanding of atomic structure helped explain why chemicals react the way they do?

This section lists options that can be used to view responses.

Electricity and Magnetism (graded)

Electrical charge and magnetic force are fundamental properties of matter we have learned to manipulate in all the electrical devices we use in our daily lives. From where do these properties arise? How do they relate to one another? How have they been manipulated to make generators, motors, transformers and other useful technologies?

Devry SCI 214 Week 4 Discussions Latest

Earth’s Place in an Expanding Universe (graded)

A famous photograph taken by the Hubble telescope shows galaxies extending into what appears to be limitless regions of space.What evidence do we have that supports the Big Bang Theory, this expansion from an incredibly dense state? How did our current structure, both large scale (galaxies and clusters) and individual stars and solar systems, form?

This section lists options that can be used to view responses.

Earth: A World of Change (graded)

Earth is a dynamic world where rocks cycle from one type of material to another, and where continents drift like ships over oceans of hot mantle. What is the anatomy of this planet? What minerals give it form and substance? What proof do we have that massive continental sheets drift from one place to another; that the crust is in a dynamic state of change?

Devry SCI 214 Week 5 Discussions Latest

 

Cells: Living Building Blocks (graded)

Why do we consider some things to be living and some things not? Can you imagine what Anton Leeuwenhoek must have thought when he looked at a drop of water for the very first time with his primitive microscope? A sea of cells in a drop of water; living, replicating, going about their business in a world that no one had ever envisioned. From where did these cells come? What were the functions of the various components that he was able to barely see? What were their sources of energy? How did they reproduce themselves? Our discussions for this week will focus on just how far we have come in answering these questions.

Ecosystems and Interactions (graded)

‘Global Warming!’ Regardless of your position on the subject, it makes sense that the more we understand about how ecological systems are organized, how energy flows through ecosystems, how materials are cycled through ecosystems, and the interactions that occur between the diverse communities that make up ecosystems, the better we can make decisions concerning the various factors (including increased carbon dioxide emissions) that impact these ecosystems. The purpose of this thread is to discuss each of these issues within the broader perspective of man’s influence on the environment.

Devry SCI 214 Week 6 Discussions Latest

DNA and Genetics (graded)

When Gregor Mendel formulated his three laws of inheritance, he opened the door to a long line of research that has produced a deep understanding of how genetic traits are transmitted from one generation to the next. Our understanding of the nature of the gene began with his work. And in a triumph no less profound than landing a human being on the moon, his research has led us to point where we have mapped the entire genome of the human being. During the course of this discussion, we will explore the nature of the gene. What are alleles? What are the various models of inheritance? What is the structure of DNA, the material from which genes are constructed? How is the information in DNA transmitted from one generation to the next? How does it regulate the functions of cells? And finally, where does mutation fit into the overall picture?

Evolution and Change Over Time (graded)

It’s difficult to look at a modern bird and fossils of some theropod dinosaurs and not see a connection. It’s equally difficult to imagine the changes in the Earth’s crust that must have occurred in order to lift a marine fossil to a mountain top. The Earth is over 4.5 billion years old. The possibilities for change over that period of time are enormous. During the course of this thread, we will discuss how our understanding of the origin of life has changed. We will examine the role played by natural selection and look into those factors that influence natural selection. How do species change over time? What kinds of conditions need to exist in order for change to occur? What is the role of mutation in the process?

Devry SCI 214 Week 7 Discussions Latest

The Circulatory System (graded) Once nutrients enter the blood supply, they embark on a long voyage through a system of incredible complexity. Blood, vessels, heart–the innumerable cell types that flow from the top of your head to the tip of your toes–these are the issues that we will be discussing in this thread. How are nutrients exchanged? What kinds of elements make up the blood and what are their functions? What is the structure of the heart? How are gases exchanged? And finally…what are some of the consequences of poor diet and lack of exercise on the health of the cardiovascular system?

The Digestive System (graded)

Describe the anatomy of the digestive system, the enzymes that play a role in the digestion of food, the major classes of nutrients recovered during the process, and the ways in which the digestive system increases its ability to absorb nutrients. What are some common digestive system disorders? What role does diet play in managing digestive system problems?

 

Devry SCI 214 Week 1 Quiz Latest

(TCO 1) Which property listed below is not a fundamental property?

Length

Mass

Weight

Time

Question 2. Question :

(TCO 1) Measured properties that have different values at different times are ________.

the result of measurement errors

impossible

called variables

called scientific flukes

Question 3. Question :

(TCO 1) A controlled experiment compares two situations that ____________.

have all variables identical except for the one under investigation.

have all variables be the same.

have no variables.

use only a control group.

Question 4. Question :

(TCO 1) Which of the following could be used by scientists to visualize or understand something that cannot be observed directly?

The theory of plate tectonics

Newton’s laws of motion

A model of the solar system

Archimedes’ Principle

Question 5. Question :

(TCO 1) Imagine a 10g chunk of aluminum (p=density =2.7 g/cm^3) and a 10g chunk of iron (p=density=7.9 g/cm^3). Which of the following is true?

The chunk of iron is smaller than the chunk of aluminum.

The chunk of iron is more massive than the chunk of aluminum.

The chunk of aluminum is smaller than the chunk of iron.

Both objects have the same volume.

Question 6. Question :

(TCO 1) What are the steps of the scientific method?

 

Devry SCI 214 Week 2 Quiz Latest

(TCO 2) A cannonball is fired straight up at 50 m/s. Neglecting air resistance, when it returns to its starting point, its speed is __________.

50 m/s

more than 50 m/s

less than 50 m/s

depends on how long it is in the air

Question 2. Question :

(TCO 2) Acceleration occurs when an object undergoes _________.

a speed increase

a speed decrease

a change in the direction of travel

CORRECT all of the choices are correct

Question 3. Question :

(TCO 3) Which quantity has the greatest influence on the amount of kinetic energy that a large truck has moving down the road?

Mass

Velocity

Size

Weight

Question 4. Question :

(TCO 3) Most energy leaves the Earth in the form of ________.

nuclear energy

kinetic energy

chemical energy

radiant energy

Question 5. Question :

(TCO 3) Which path would result in more work accomplished in moving a box to the same spot on the table?

A

B

C

All would be equal.

Question 6. Question :

(TCO 2) What are Newton’s Three Laws of Motion?

Question 7. Question :

(TCO 3) What is work? How much work needs to be done to lift a 500 kg mass from the ground to a height of 20 meters?

 

Devry SCI 214 Week 3 Quiz Latest

TCO 4) Consider the electron dot diagram of the unknown element X: . This atom would most likely _______.

form an ion of 6 charge.

react with hydrogen to form H2X.

lose two electrons when forming an ion.

form an ion of 2 charge.

Question 2. Question :

(TCO 4) The attractive John Dalton reasoned that atoms exist from the evidence that ________.

there are numerous, tiny empty spaces in matter.

elements always combined in certain fixed ratios.

elements could not be broken down into simpler substances.

matter was homogenous.

Question 3. Question :

(TCO 5) The size of the current in a conductor depends on the _______ as well as the voltage.

resistance

power

coulombs stopped

none of the above

Question 4. Question :

(TCO 5) Which of the following is a not a similarity between magnets and electrical charges?

There are attractive and repelling forces between unlike or like poles or charges.

Both magnets and electrical charges establish fields.

Both exert forces at a distance.

Both magnetic poles and electric charges can be separated.

Question 5. Question :

(TCO 5) The magnitude of the resistance of a wire depends on _________.

the length of the wire

the cross-sectional area of the wire

the temperature of the wire

all of these are true

Question 6. Question :

(TCO 4) What are the differences between ionic and covalent chemical bonds? Give an example of a compound formed from these bonds.

 

Devry SCI 214 Week 5 Quiz Latest

(TCO 8) A nucleus is found in:

bacteria.

eukaryotic cells.

blue-green algae.

All of the above

:

Question 2. Question :

(TCO 8) The endoplasmic reticulum:

functions in the internal transport of macromolecules.

carries on cellular respiration.

is the site of photosynthesis.

INCORRECT is dispersed nuclear material of DNA and protein.

Question 3. Question :

(TCO 8) The order in which the stages of mitosis proceed is:

anaphase, interphase, metaphase, prophase, telophase.

interphase, anaphase, metaphase, prophase, telophase.

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, interphase.

interphase, telophase, prophase, anaphase, metaphase.

Question 4. Question :

(TCO 7) A food chain typically begins with:

decomposers.

producers.

commensals.

consumers.

Question 5. Question :

(TCO 7) Which one of the following is a logical food chain?

Grass-grasshopper-horse

Fish-grasshopper-snake

Light-grass-human

Grass-cow-human

Question 6. Question :

(TCOs 7, 8) Describe what happens in the different phases of mitosis.

 

Devry SCI 214 Week 6 Quiz Latest

(TCO 9) The geographical distribution of a species is its:

habitat.

environment.

niche.

range.

Question 2. Question :

(TCO 9) Some scientists think that life may have originated on other planets because:

many meteorites contain organic molecules.

other planets in our solar system have oxygen in the atmosphere.

there is evidence of volcanoes on other planets.

the rocks on the Moon are the same as rocks on Earth.

Question 3. Question :

(TCO 9) Which one of the following statements is not consistent with the concept of evolution?

Mutations occur as a result of evolution.

Selective breeding can result in new varieties of plants and animals.

INCORRECT Only populations of organisms evolve; individual organisms cannot.

Evolution is taking place today.

:

Question 4. Question :

(TCO 9) A gene that can be masked by another gene is called:

pleiotropy.

dominant.

incompletely dominant.

recessive.

Question 5. Question :

(TCO 9) This inheritance pattern is very common in determining characteristics that appear on a gradient, for example as in variations in skin-color.

Polygenic

Incomplete dominance

Pleitropy

X-linked

Question 6. Question :

(TCOs 9, 11) What is the difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport? Provide examples of each process.

 

Devry SCI 214 Week 7 Quiz Latest

(TCO 10) The primary function of capillaries is to:

exchange materials with cells.

carry blood through the body.

manufacture blood cells.

connect arteries to veins.

Question 2. Question :

(TCO 10) Which of the following occurs during a nerve impulse? Sodium ions:

flow out of the cell.

flow into the cell.

are pumped into the cell.

are pumped out of the cell.

Question 3. Question :

(TCO 10) All of the following are functions of the blood, except transport of:

hormones.

digestive enzymes.

heat.

INCORRECT cells.

Question 4. Question :

(TCO 10) The sense of touch:

is evenly distributed over the surface of the body.

consists of very few receptor cells in very specific places, like the tips of the fingers.

is relatively unimportant.

includes pressure, temperature, and pain receptors.

Question 5. Question :

(TCO 10) Which class of nutrients provides “essential” organic components required in the diet because the body cannot manufacture them?

Carbohydrates

Proteins

Nucleic acids

Water

Comments:

 

Question 6. Question :

(TCO 10) Describe three ways the digestive system increases its ability to absorb nutrients.

 

Devry SCI 214 Week 1 ilab Latest

Week 1 iLab: General Measurements and Ratios

Lab 1: Biotechnology – Control groups, and independent and dependent variables.

Instructions

At least three experiments must be conducted using an appropriate experimental design. Each experiment should be repeated three times under no, low and high infestation conditions, and the average taken for the values (sum of observations/3). Record your data on the data table below and answer the lab questions. This lab exercise/worksheet is valued at a maximum of 40 points.

Prelab Questions (2 points each)

Answer the following four questions with as much detail as possible by entering your response in the box below the question. Please complete these questions before conducting the experiment.

Question 1: What is the European Cork Borer and why would farmers be concerned if any were present in their corn fields?

Question 2: Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium that produces a crystalline poison that is deadly to certain insects.What is the name of the gene that codes for the protein and how have geneticists used this information to combat infestations caused by this insect?

Question 3: Given the information provided on page 8 in the “Greenhouse Handbook”, what hypothesis or hypothesis might one consider as a basis for designing this experiment?

Data Analysis (10 points)

Describe the effects of the ECB infestations you used on the various variety of corn. Were all corn varieties equally effective at controlling the ECB? How do you know? Be specific.

Post Lab Questions (3 points each)

Answer the following four questions with as much detail as possible by entering your response in the box below the question.

Question 5: BT corn is generally more expensive than the non-BT forms. On the other hand losing an entire crop of corn can also be expensive. Assume there were no ECB infestation in a certain year, would a farmer gain or lose financially by deciding to use BT corn? Explain.

Devry SCI 214 Week 2 ilab Latest

Week 2 iLab: Motion

NWeek 2

Lab Worksheet

SCI214 – Integrated Science

Lab 2: Circular Motion

Instructions

Circular motion is one of the fundamental building blocks for understanding the physical world because it is so common. In reading the Tillery text, you’ve explored the notion that the revolutionary movement of an object around a central body is the result of a combination of forces. Objects tend to travel in a straight line path but they can also be deflected from that path by a central body. The force that pulls the object out of that straight-line motion is called centripetal force. In the mean time the orbiting object is exerting an equal and opposite force such that if the connection between the two bodies were blocked, the smaller object would continue to travel in a straight line direction away from the central body; although not necessarily the same direction as before. We call is centrifugal reaction. Tillery describes this orbiting system in terms of inertia, mass, and acceleration. This interactive lets you examine these basic ideas and adds two new ideas to the mix; angular displacement and angular velocity (See lab overview for directions)

In this experiment you will be examining an object orbiting around a central body where the radius of the orbit is 1.0 meter. The goals of this experiment are to explore the nature of the relationships between mass, acceleration, force, and time.

Prelab Questions (2 points each)

Answer the following four questions with as much detail. Enter your response in the box below the question. Please complete these questions before conducting the experiment.

Question 1: What does your reading of Tillery tell you about the nature of the relationship between velocity, acceleration, mass and force?

Question 2: How do you plan on designing this experiment using the features on the Applet to explore these relationships?

Data Analysis (12 points)

How would you interpret the above results? Be specific. Do your results conform to what you read about circular motion in the Tillery text? Explain.

Post Lab Questions (2 points each)

Answer the following five questions with as much detail as possible. Enter your response in the box below the question.

Question 3: While this simulation allows you to explore the nature of the relationships between velocity, force, and acceleration, what important issues are being ignored?r.

Devry SCI 214 Week 3 ilab Latest

Week 3: Magnetic Fields and Static Electricity

Part 1: Magnetic Fields

Background

A magnet moved into the space nears a second magnet, experiences a force as it enters the magnetic fieldof the second magnet. The magnetic field model is a conceptual way of consideringhow two magnets interact with one another. The magnetic field model does not consider the force that one magnet exerts on another one through a distance. Instead, it considers the condition of space around a magnet. The condition of space around a magnet is considered to be changed by the presence of the magnet. Since this region of space, or field, is produced by a magnet, it is called a magnetic field. A magnetic field can be represented by magnetic field lines. By convention, magnetic field lines are drawn to indicate how the north pole of a tiny imaginary magnet would point when in various places in the magnetic field. Arrowheads indicate the direction that the north pole would point, thus defining the direction of the magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field is greater where the lines are closer together and weaker where they are further apart. Magnetic field lines emerge from a magnet at the north pole and enter the magnet at the south pole.Magnetic field lines always form closed loops.

Magnetic field strength is defined in terms of the magnetic force exerted on a test charge of a particular charge and velocity. The magnetic field is thus represented by vectors (symbol B) which define the field strength, also called the magnetic induction. The units are:

Since a coulomb(s) is an amp, this can be written as

which is called a tesla (T). The tesla is a measure of the strength of a magnetic field. Near the surface, the earth’s horizontal magnetic field in some locations is about 2× 10-5 tesla. A small bar magnet produces a magnetic field of about 10-2 tesla, but large, strong magnets can produce magnetic fields of 2 tesla. Superconducting magnets have magnetic fields as high as 30 tesla. Another measure of magnetic field strength is called the gauss (G) (1 tesla = 104 gauss). Thus, the process of demagnetizing something is sometimes referred to as “degaussing.”

In this experiment you will investigate the magnetic field around a permanent magnet.

Procedure

  1. 1.Tape a large sheet of paper on a table, with the long edge parallel to the north-south magnetic direction as determined by a compass.
  2. 2.Center a bar magnet on the paper with its south pole pointing north.Use a sharp pencil to outline lightly the bar magnet on the paper. Write N and S on the paper to record the north-seeking and south-seeking poles of the bar magnet. Place the bar magnet back on its outline if you moved it to write the N and the S.
  3. 3.Slide a small magnetic compass across the paper, stopping close to the north-seeking pole of the bar magnet.Make two dots on the paper, one on either side of the compass and aligned with the compass needle. See Figure 3.1.

Large sheet

N

of paper

S

Bar magnet

First dot

N

Compass

Second dot

Figure 3.1

  1. 4.Slide the compass so the south pole of the needle is now directly over the dot that was at the north pole of the needle.Make a new dot at the north pole end of the compass, exactly in front of the needle. See figure 3.2.
  2. 5.Continuing the process of moving the compass so the south pole of the needle is over the most recently-drawn dot, then making another new dot at the north pole of the needle.Stop when you reach the bar magnet or the edge of the paper.
  3. 6.Draw a smooth curve through the dots, using several arrowheads to show the direction of the magnetic flux line.
  4. 7.Repeat procedure steps 3 through 6, by starting with the compass in a new location somewhere around the bar magnet.Repeat the procedures until enough flux lines are drawn to make a map of the magnetic field.

Large sheet

N

of paper

S

Bar magnet

First dot

N

Third dot

Second dot (exactly under south pole of compass).

Figure 3.2

Results

  1. 1.In terms of a force, or torque on a magnetic compass needle, what do the lines actually represent? Explain.
  2. 2.Do the lines ever cross each other at any point? Explain.
  3. 3.Where do the lines appear to be concentrated the most? What does this mean?

Part 2: Static Electricity

Background

Charges of static electricity are produced when two dissimilar materials are rubbed together. Often the charges are small or leak away rapidly, especially in humid air, but they can lead to annoying electrical shocks when the air is dry.The charge is produced because electrons are moved by friction and this can result in a material acquiring an excess of electrons and becoming a negatively charged body. The material losing electrons now has a deficiency of electrons and is a positively charged body. All electric static charges result from such gains or losses of electrons. Once charged by friction, objects soon return to the neutral state by the movement of electrons. This happens more quickly in humid air because water vapor assists with the movement of electrons from charged objects. In this experiment you will study the behavior of static electricity, hopefully on a day of low humidity.

Procedure

Part A: Attraction and Repulsion

  1. 1.Rub a glass rod briskly for several minutes with a piece of nylon or silk.Suspend the rod from a thread tied to a wooden meterstick as shown in Figure 3.3. Rub a second glass rod briskly for several minutes with nylon or silk. Bring it near the suspended rod and record your observations in Data Table 3.1. (If nothing is observed to happen, repeat the procedure and rub both rods briskly for twice the time.)
  2. 2.Repeat the procedure with a hard rubber rod that has been briskly rubbed with wool or fur.Bring a second hard rubber rod that has also been rubbed with wool or fur near the suspended rubber rod. Record your observations as in procedure step 1.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Thread

Meter stick

Suspended rod

Second rod

Figure 3.3

  1. 3.Again rub the hard rubber rod briskly with wool or fur and suspend it.This time briskly rub a glass rod with nylon or silk and bring the glass rod near the suspended rubber rod. Record your observations.

Part B: Charging by Induction

  1. 1.Inflate two rubber balloons and tie the ends.Attach threads to each balloon and hang them next to each other from a support. Rub both balloons with fur or wool and allow them to hang freely. Record your observations in Data Table 3.2.
  2. 2.Bring a glass rod that has been rubbed with nylon or silk near the rubbed balloons.Record your observations.
  3. 2.Detach one of the balloons by breaking or cutting the thread.Rub the balloon with fur or wool for several minutes.Hold the balloon against a wall and slowly release it. Record your observations.

Results

  1. 1.Describe two different ways that electrical charge can be produced by friction.
  2. 2.Move a hard rubber rod that has been rubbed with wool or fur near a very thin, steady stream of water from a faucet.Describe, then explain your observations.
  3. 3.Was the purpose of this lab accomplished? Why or why not? (Your answer to this question should be reasonable and make sense, showing thoughtful analysis and careful, thorough thinking.)

Data Table 3.1 Attraction and Repulsion of Glass Rod and Rubber Rod

Interaction

Observation

Glass rod-Glass Rod

Rubber rod – Rubber Rod

Glass rod – Rubber rod

How many different kinds of electric charge exist according to your findings above? Explain your reasoning?

How do charges interact?

Data Table 3.2 Charging by Induction

Interaction

Observation

Balloon – Balloon

Rubber rod – Balloon

Glass rod – Balloon

Balloon – Wall

What evidence did you find to indicate that the balloons had static charges?

Explain why a balloon exhibits the behavior that it did on the wall.

Devry SCI 214 Week 5 ilab Latest

Name____________________________________________________Section________________Date___________

Week 5: Daily Energy Balance

Invitation to Inquiry

Many kinds of foods are marketed to those who participate in various kinds of sports. The implication is that these foods have additional nutrients or higher quantities of nutrients need by the athlete. Go to a store and read the ingredient label on one of these products. Compare it to an equivalent product that is not marketed in such a manner.For example, you could compare a sports drink to a soft drink or orange juice. You could compare a “nutrient bar” to an equivalent candy bar or snack food. Look specifically at quantities of calories, fats, proteins, sodium, and potassium.How are they different? What other foods could you eat that would provide the same calories and nutrients?

Background

The theoretical biological sciences of biochemistry, anatomy, cell biology, and physiology are brought together in the practical biological field of nutrition. The science of nutrition is the study of the processes involved in taking in, assimilating, and utilizing nutrients. The amount of food and drink consumed by a person from day to day is a person’s diet. There has been an increased interest in diet and personal nutrition as more information concerning these subjects becomes available through the popular press, scientific publications, health clubs, and schools. Not only are people “counting calories” and concerned with the grams of fat they consume, but they are becoming scientifically literate enough to ask significant questions to their physicians, teachers, food manufacturers, and government officials. With a minimal amount of nutrition information, it is possible to get a better handle on your own nutritional status.

In this exercise, you determine your daily basal metabolic rate, voluntary muscular activity, and specific dynamic action per day. These are used to estimate your total energy requirements per day in kilocalories (kcal). You then calculate your total daily kcal intake. By comparing these two figures, you can determine whether or not your present diet should result in your maintaining, losing, or gaining weight.

You will determine your:

  1. 1.basal metabolic rate;
  2. 2.voluntary muscular activity level;
  3. 3.specific dynamic action;
  4. 4.kilocalorie intake per day by adding your BMR, activity level, and SDA;
  5. 5.total energy requirements and compare to your energy kcal intake per day; and
  6. 6.energy balance.

Procedure

Determining Your Basal Metabolic Rate

Your BMR (basal metabolic rate) is the rate at which kcals are used for maintenance activities and can be measured on a daily basis. This is also the total amount of energy per kilogram per hour expended after a 12-hour fast. Energy is measured in kilocalories, the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1?C. BMR can be estimated by using a short formula that is based on 1.0 kcal per kilogram of body weight per hour for men, or 0.9 kcal per kilogram of body weight for women. Even though this is a crude method, it does give some idea of the BMR.

Body weight× BMR factor = Estimated BMR (kcal/kg/hour)

For example: If a male weighs 150 lbs, his mass in kilograms will be 68 kg. Therefore, the estimated BMR is

68 kg× 1.0 kcal/kg/hr = 68 kcal/kg/hr

24 hours/day× Estimated BMR/hour = Estimated energy expenditure/day

68 kcal/kg/hr× 24 hours = 1632 kcal/kg/day

If a female weighs 120 lbs, her mass in kilograms will be 55 kg. Therefore, the estimated BMR is

55 kg× 0.9 kcal/kg/hr = 49 kcal/kg/hr

24 hours/day× Estimated BMR/hour = Estimated energy expenditure/day

49 kcal/kg/hr× 24 hours = 1176 kcal/kg/day

These are estimated basal metabolic rates for these two people. Using this method, calculate your own BMR:

Body weight in kg× BMR factor in kcal/kg/hr = Estimated energy expenditure in kcal/kg/hr

24 hours/day× Your estimated energy expenditure/hour =

kcal/day

(your estimated energy

expenditure/day

or kcal/day used while at rest)

For a more accurate determination of your BMR, use standard tables from your text and calculate your skin surface area from your height and weight. A table of kilocalories per day per square meter of skin lists the kilocalories expended by a female or male by age group. This kilocalorie figure should be multiplied by your skin surface area to determine your BMR more accurately.

Skin surface area× Kilocalories per day per square meter of skin = BMR

Your skin surface area× Kilocalories per day per square meter of your skin = kcal/day

Estimating Your Energy Output per Day

Energy output per day is an estimate of your voluntary muscular activity per day. For a person who engages in only sedentary activities such as desk work, the estimated energy output is approximately 50% of his or her already determined BMR. For example, if the male in the previous example were a typist, his voluntary muscular activity level for the day would be:

0.50× 1632 kcal/day = 816 kcal/day

For a person who engages in light activities such as standing, talking, and minor amounts of walking, the estimated energy output is approximately 60% of his or her already determined BMR. For example, if the female in the previous example were a teacher, her voluntary muscular activity level for the day would be:

0.60× 1176 kcal/day = 706 kcal/day

For a person who engages in moderate activities that exceed those described as light, the estimated energy output is approximately 70% of his or her already determined BMR. For example, if the male described were a nurse, his voluntary muscular activity level for the day would be:

0.70× 1632 kcal/day = 800 kcal/day

Those participating in heavy activities are estimated to use an equivalent of their BMR per day. For a person engaged in heavy lifting and moving or a daily workout of an hour or more:

1.00× 1632 kcal/day = 1,632 kcal/day

Estimate your voluntary muscular energy expenditure per day:

Percent of BMR based on activity level× BMR =

kcal/day

(your voluntary muscular energy expenditure)

Estimating Your Specific Dynamic Action (SDA)

The specific dynamic action (SDA) is the amount of energy needed to metabolize food for the day. This is approximately 10% of a person’s total daily basal expenditure and total daily voluntary muscular activity. For example, the male nurse had a voluntary muscular activity level for the day of 800 kcal, and his daily expenditure was 1,632 kcal.Therefore, his SDA for the day would be an

estimated 243 kcal.

(Your basal energy expenditure Your voluntary daily physical activity)× 0.10 =

kcal/day

(your SDA)

Add together your BMR and your voluntary muscular energy expenditure.

BMR voluntary muscular activity =

kcal/day

Total Daily Energy Requirements

Your total daily energy requirements are the sum

of your BMR voluntary muscular activity SDA =

kcal/day

Determining Your Daily Caloric Intake

Before you can draw any conclusions about your daily energy balance, you must determine your total energy intake.This can be estimated by recording your total consumption of nutrients and determining their kcal values. Fill in Table 5.1 beginning with the first meal of your day and ending with the last snack you consume. The estimate of your kcal intake can be determined by using the tables found in many supermarkets, bookstores, and libraries. Such tables are usually referred to as pocket calorie counters.

Compare your total daily energy requirement with your actual kilocalorie intake per day:

Total daily energy requirement – Actual kilocalorie intake = Gain/maintenance/loss

If these two figures are the same, you are meeting your energy requirements and maintaining your weight. If your total daily caloric intake is greater than your caloric requirement, you are exceeding your energy requirements and, therefore, gaining weight. The opposite is true if you are not meeting your caloric requirement. Therefore, you are losing weight.

Table 5.1

Total Energy Intake

Food

Food Serving Size

Energy kcal

Breakfast

Lunch

Dinner

Other

Total = ________________

Determining Your Daily Energy Balance

Name ___________________________________________ Lab section____________________

Your instructor may collect these end-of-exercise questions. If so, please fill in your name and lab section.

End-of-Exercise Questions

  1. 1.What is basal metabolic rate?
  2. 2.Do basal metabolic rates differ between males and females? On what evidence can you base your answer?
  3. 3.What factors are involved in accurately determining your BMR?
  4. 4.What is specific dynamic action?
  5. 5.If your total kilocalorie intake per day is higher than your total kilocalorie requirements, what happens to your weight?
  6. 6.What can you do to bring about an energy balance?
  7. 7.Other than kilocalories, what information is important in determining whether or not you are consuming a healthy diet?
  8. 8.What resources are available to help you develop a balanced diet?

Part 2 – BMI

A: Define BMI-You must define BMI and not just as a general definition indicating its relationship to height and weight.Please also do not forget to define the actual term BMI!

B: Calculate BMI- Do no use an online calculator – show your actual math calculations. Please include all stages of the math calculations associated with determining your BMI.

C: Tie it all together. Consider the diet plan that you created in Table 5.1 for the determining total energy input. Based on your own BMI and how you fall according to the standard tables (underweight, normal, overweight, obese), evaluate your dietary plan. Build on the caloric intake you’ve already listed to include an exercise plan, being as specific as possible. The goal of this section is to develop a plan that incorporated all of the components of a sound fitness program (flexibility, endurance, strength training, body fat, and cardiovascular) as well as discuss specific exercises that you planned on doing.

Devry SCI 214 Week 7 ilab Latest

Name____________________________________________________Section________________Date___________

Week 7: Sensory Abilities

Invitation to Inquiry

There are many kinds of eye-glasses used for special purposes. People who fish like to wear polarizing sunglasses.People who shoot guns competitively, typically wear amber colored glasses. Conduct some research to determine why each prefers a particular kind of eye-wear.

Background

This laboratory exercise gives you an opportunity to study how we sense changes in our surroundings. Your ability to sense changes in your surroundings involves (1) the specific ability of sense organs to respond to stimuli (detection), (2) the transportation of information from the sense organ to the brain by way of the nervous system (transmission), and (3) the decoding and interpretation of the information by the brain (perception). In order for us to sense something, all three of these links must be functioning properly. For example, a deaf person might be unable to detect sound because (1) there is something wrong with the ear itself, (2) the nerves that carry information from the ear to the brain are damaged, or (3) the portion of the brain that interprets information about sound is not functioning properly. While this laboratory activity focuses on the function of sense organs, it is important to keep in mind that the peripheral and central nervous systems are also important in determining your sensory ability. All sense organs contain specialized cells that are altered in some way by changes in their environment (stimuli). The sensory cells depolarize and since they are connected to nerve cells, they cause the nerve cells to which they are attached to depolarize as well, and information is sent to the brain for interpretation by way of nerve pathways.

In this lab exercise you will:

  1. 1.Make a map of the location of different kinds of taste buds on your tongue.
  2. 2.Determine several characteristics of the sense of “touch.”
  3. 3.Locate different kinds of temperature sensors in the skin.
  4. 4.Study several aspects of visual acuity.
  5. 5.Study several aspects of the sense of hearing.

Procedure

Taste

Taste involves several different kinds of sensory cells located on the tongue and pharynx. Each kind of sensory cell responds to specific kinds of chemicals. So there is not just one sense of taste; there are several. We recognize at least five different kinds of taste senses: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (meaty).

Mapping the Sense of Taste on the Tongue

  1. 1.Work with a lab partner.
  2. 2.Obtain a cotton swab and dip it into one of the solutions.The solutions are labeled sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami (meaty).
  3. 3.Have your lab partner touch the swab to the tongue at the following five locations: a.the tip, b. right side, c. left side, d. center, and e. back.

Place an X on the following drawings of the tongue to indicate where you detected each chemical.

a

a

A

a

a

c

d

b

d

b

D

b

d

b

d

b

c

c

c

c

e

e

E

e

e

Sweet

Sour

Salt

Bitter

Umami

  1. 4.Test the other four solutions in the same manner, but be sure to rinse your mouth with water after each solution.
  2. 5.When you have tested each of five chemicals, switch positions with your partner.

Results

  1. 1.Can you detect each chemical at all places on the tongue?
  2. 2.Compare your results to your partner and other people in class.Do they detect the same chemicals in the same place?
  3. 3.What does this tell you about the sense of taste?

The Role of Solubility in Detecting Taste

  1. 1.Dry off the tip of your tongue with a clean paper towel.Place a few grains of table salt (NaCl) on the tip of your tongue. Record the time interval from the time you place salt on the tip of your tongue until you first taste the salt.__________
  2. 2.Dissolve a few grains of salt in a small amount of water.Place this on the tip of your tongue. Record the time interval from the time you place the salt solution on the tip of your tongue until you first taste the salt. __________

Were the two time intervals different? What does this tell you about the ability to taste salty materials?

Touch

The sense of touch is made up of a number of different types of receptor organs. Pressure, pain, heat, and cold are all aspects of the sense of touch. We will experiment with some of them here.

Localization of Touch

You need a partner for this exercise.

  1. 1.The subject should keep his or her eyes closed throughout the exercise.
  2. 2.Touch the skin on the back of the hand of the subject lightly with the pointed end of a soft lead pencil.Be sure to leave a mark.
  3. 3.Then ask the subject (with eyes still closed) to use a blunt probe to locate the place on the skin where the stimulus was received.
  4. 4.Use a ruler to measure as closely as possible the error in locating where the stimulus was applied.Measure the error in millimeters. Repeat five times at different locations on the back of the hand.
  5. 5.Change roles with your partner and repeat the experiment.

Results and Conclusions

In the space provided, write a short paragraph that states your findings and conclusions.

Density of Sense Organs

You need to work in pairs.

  1. 1.Have the subject keep his or her eyes closed.
  2. 2.Use a pair of forceps or calipers to gently touch the subject’s skin so that the two points of the instrument touch with the same light pressure and at the same time.Test the palm of the hand and two other regions of the body. Other regions that may be tested are the back of the hand, the tip of the index finger, the forearm, the tip of the nose, the forehead, and the back of the neck. Not all of these need to be tried, but a decent selection should be made (at least three locations).
  3. 3.Ask the subject to state whether one or two points of the instrument are felt.Repeat this procedure five times for each area of the body chosen. (To keep the subject from guessing, the experimenter should occasionally touch the skin with only one point. However, do not record the result of the response in your data).
  4. 4.Record your data in the following manner: Record a minus sign (–) whenever two points were felt as one and a plus sign ( ) whenever the two points were actually felt as two.
  5. 5.Begin with the points 20 millimeters apart and systematically decrease the distance between the points from 20 mm to 15 mm to 10 mm to 5 mm.Find the smallest distance at which the subject can still distinguish two points for each portion of the body tested.
  6. 6.Change roles.Record the data made on yourself as the subject.
  7. 7.From the data, estimate the comparative densities of touch receptors of the different parts of the

body.

Area I: _____________________

distance between points of forceps in mm

Area II: _____________________

distance between points of forceps in mm

Area III: _____________________

distance between points of forceps in mm

Results and Conclusions

Trial Number

1

2

3

4

5

20 mm

15 mm

10 mm

5 mm

Trial Number

1

2

3

4

5

20 mm

15 mm

10 mm

5 mm

Trial Number

1

2

3

4

5

20 mm

15 mm

10 mm

5 mm

  1. 1.What is the smallest distance the subject can still recognize two points for each of the three areas tested? Are they the same? Explain.

Sensory cell

Skin surface

Nerve to brain

  1. 2.Place a sketch of your “two-point device” on the drawing to indicate why two points are sometimes felt as one.
  2. 3.Which of the regions of the skin that you tested is represented by the left side of the drawing and which is represented by the right side of the drawing? Explain your answer.

Temperature Sense–Detecting Hot and Cold

Work with a partner.

  1. 1.With a pen, draw a square with 20 mm sides on the back of the subject’s hand, then subdivide this square into 16 smaller squares by dividing each of the sides into 5 mm segments.
  2. 2.Have the subject keep eyes closed and place his or her hand flat on the table.
  3. 3.Obtain a nail that has been in ice-cold water.Dry it off with a paper towel.

Lightly touch each of the squares of the grid on the hand at random. The subject should respond by saying “cold” if such a sensation is actually felt; otherwise the subject remains silent. It is important for the subject to ignore the sense of touch and concentrate on the sensation of cold.

  1. 4.For every positive response, the experimenter marks a plus sign ( ) on the following grid at a point corresponding to the point tested on the skin.
  2. 5.Be sure that the nail is really cold when you make each test.
  3. 6.Repeat this exercise with a very warm nail and record your results on the second grid.

Cold Warm

  1. 7.Switch roles with your partner and repeat the exercise.
  2. 8.Answer the following questions.

Do you detect hot in every square?

Do you detect cold in every square?

Are hot and cold receptors always located in the same squares?

Do the same receptors respond to hot and cold? Explain how you know.

Temperature Sense—Detecting Changes in Temperature

  1. 1.Dip one finger into a beaker of hot water and at the same time put a finger from the other hand into cold water.
  2. 2.After 30 seconds, transfer both fingers into a third beaker of warm water.

Results and Conclusions

Describe the sensations of both fingers in the beaker of warm water and explain why there is a difference in sensation.

Vision

The eye is a complex structure that focuses light on cells of the retina that respond to changes in light. There are two kinds of light receptors; rods and cones. Rods are very sensitive to light and only respond to differences in light intensity. The cones are less sensitive to light. There are at least three kinds of cones, each of which responds to specific colors of light. The rods and cones are located in different places in the retina of the eye. In this part of the lab activity you will make a number of observations about the eyes and their response to various stimuli.

Determining the Location of Rods and Cones

Rods and cones are not located in the same place on the retina of the eye. When you look at things from directly in front of the eye, the cornea and lens of the eye focus the light on a region known as the fovea centralis. When you look at things with your peripheral vision, the light is focused on regions of the eye other than the fovea centralis.

Work with a partner.

  1. 1.Choose three similarly colored squares of paper about 100 cm by 100 cm.
  2. 2.Have your partner stare at a distant object directly in front of him or her.
  3. 3.Start behind your partner (out of the field of vision) and slowly move the piece of paper forward at eye level about 30 cm to the side of the head.
  4. 4.Ask your partner to tell you when the piece of paper is first seen and when the color of the paper can be detected.

Use the information about the location of rods and cones and the results you just obtained to answer the following questions.

Which sense organs (rods or cones) are most common in regions outside the fovea centralis?

Which sense organs (rods or cones) are most common within the region of the fovea centralis?

Explain how this experiment allows you to answer these questions.

Detecting the Blind Spot

Use the and dot below in the following manner. Close your left eye. Place the page close to your face. Stare at the with your right eye. Slowly move the page away from you. What happens to the dot?

In order to detect the presence of an object, light must fall on the retina of the eye and stimulate either rods or cones.There are no rods or cones at the point where the optic nerve goes

out of the back of the eye. Use this information to explain what you observed when looking at the and • above.

Hearing

The sense of hearing involves the detection of sound vibrations. Airborne sounds cause the eardrum to vibrate. The eardrum is attached to a series of three small bones: the malleus, incus, and stapes. The stapes is attached to a membrane over a small opening in the cochlea. The cochlea is fluid filled. Thus, the vibrations of the air are transferred to the fluid of the cochlea. When the fluid in the cochlea vibrates, cells in the cochlea are stimulated. When these cells depolarize, they send a signal by way of the auditory nerve to the brain. In this part of the lab activity we will explore some aspects of hearing.

Work with a partner.

  1. 1.Strike a low frequency tuning fork (100 cps) and hold it near one ear.Determine how far from the ear the subject can hear the tuning fork. Repeat with the other ear. Are both ears the same?
  2. 2.Strike the tuning fork and touch the base of the vibrating tuning fork to the skull just in front of the ear.Does the volume change?

How is this sensation of hearing different from when the base of the turning fork touches the skull near the ear?

3a. Have the subject sit with closed eyes. Strike the tuning fork.

Have the subject point to the position of the tuning fork. Repeat three times from different positions.

Can the subject correctly identify the position of the tuning fork?

3b. Now have the subject keep eyes closed and plug one ear with a finger.

Have the subject point to the tuning fork as it is struck at different positions. Was the subject able to locate the position of the tuning fork accurately? Why was there a difference between the two different trials?

Sensory Abilities

Name ___________________________________________ Lab Section____________________

Your instructor may collect these end-of-exercise questions. If so, please fill in your name and lab section.

End-of-Exercise Questions

  1. 1.Describe the regions of your tongue that are most sensitive to sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami.
  2. 2.How is solubility important to the sense of taste?
  3. 3.Determine the average distance between points on the palm of the hand at which persons in the class correctly identified that they were being touched by two points.On the average, individuals

could discriminate between two points that were _____ mm apart.

  1. 4.Using the data you collected for different parts of the skin, rank them according to which had the greatest density of touch receptors and which had the lowest density.
  2. 5.Write a paragraph describing what you learned about the receptors that respond to temperature.How many kinds of receptors are there? Explain how you know there are different kinds of receptors.
  3. 6.There are some kinds of people who can see well in bright light but are not able to see in dim light.This condition is called “night blindness.” What kinds of sensory cells do not function to capacity in individuals who have night blindness?

 

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